According to Wikipedia, like many other modern Indian languages, Hindi has evolved from Sanskrit, by way of the Middle Indo-Aryan Prakrit languages and Apabhramsha of the Middle Ages. Though there is no consensus for a specific time, Hindi originated as local dialects such as Braj, Awadhi and finally Khari Boli after the turn of tenth century. In the span of nearly a thousand years of Muslim influence, such as when Muslim rulers controlled much of northern India during the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire, many Persian and Arabic words were absorbed into khari boli and was called Urdu. Since almost all Arabic words came via Persian, they do not preserve the original phonology of Arabic.

Hindi is contrasted with Urdu in the way both are written, and the use of Sanskrit vocabulary in higher registers. Urdu is the official language of Pakistan and also an official language in some parts of India. The primary differences between the two are the way Standard Hindi is written in Devanagari and draws its “vocabulary” with words from (Indo-Aryan) Sanskrit, while Urdu is written in Urdu script, a variant of the (Semitic) Perso-Arabic script, and draws heavily on Persian and Arabic “vocabulary.”

Vocabulary is in quotes here since it is mostly the literary vocabulary that shows this visible distinction with the everyday vocabulary being essentially common between the two.

Hindi is spoken mainly in northern states of Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand and Bihar, and is spoken alongside regional languages like Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi or Bengali throughout north and central India.Hindi is a language understood (& even spoken) in all states of India, alongside the local language. Hindi is also spoken in Nepal and Bangladesh.


PERWAKILAN MUMBAI would like to announce that a Hindi class has been organised and will start soon. Here are the details:

Date: Every Tuesday starting 3 March 2009

Time: 11.30 a.m – 12.30 p.m

Venue: Residence of the Consul General of Malaysia in Mumbai

Fee: Free of charge

For more info, please contact Mrs. Zuhaila Abd Latif or Mrs. Asiah Jaafar. Thank you.


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